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dc.contributor.authorAkhter, Mahmuda
dc.contributor.authorChaudhuri, Jay
dc.identifier.citationAkhter, M., & Chaudhuri, J. (2013). Real time monitoring for the most vulnerable: Pre-primary education in bangladesh. IDS Bulletin, 44(2), 97-112. doi:10.1111/1759-5436.12020en_US
dc.descriptionThis article was published in the IDS Bulletin [© 2013 Institute of Development Studies] and the definite version is available at : The Journal's website is at:
dc.description.abstractOne of the most unique examples of real-time monitoring supported by UNICEF is found in Bangladesh in the pre-primary education (PPE) programme operated by BRAC. Randomisation techniques are used for school selection by monitors as well as for intra-classroom sampling to test learning outcomes. Monitoring is a multi-level decentralised learning process that allows staff members to compare actual performance, outputs and results against standards. Monitoring duties are executed by the programme staff themselves as well as by the organisation. The intent is to promote internal programme learning, not just logical framework type reporting, and builds on the recognition that monitoring is only effective if it enables responses to programme implementation. The BRAC initiative demonstrates that monitoring with a real-time component can be central to a strategy emphasising learning outcomes. It also shows that ICTs are not a necessary ingredient of 'real-time' monitoring despite the current fashion in thinking.en_US
dc.publisher© 2013 Institute of Development Studiesen_US
dc.subjectMonitoring systemen_US
dc.subjectReal timeen_US
dc.titleReal time monitoring for the most vulnerable: pre-primary education in Bangladeshen_US
dc.contributor.departmentInstitute of Education Development, BRAC University

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