Antibiotic use for pneumonia among children under-five at a pediatric hospital in Dhaka city, Bangladesh
Publisher© 2017 Dove Medical Press Ltd.
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CitationRashid, M. M., Chisti, M. J., Akter, D., Sarkar, M., & Chowdhury, F. (2017). Antibiotic use for pneumonia among children under-five at a pediatric hospital in dhaka city, bangladesh. Patient Preference and Adherence, 11, 1335-1342. 10.2147/PPA.S140002
Background: Pneumonia has been the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 for more than 3 decades, particularly in low-income countries like Bangladesh. The World Health Organization (WHO) developed a pneumonia case management strategy which included the use of antibiotics for both primary and hospital-based care. This study aims to describe antibiotic usage for treating pneumonia in children in a private pediatric teaching hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: We conducted this cross-sectional study among children <5 years old who were admitted to a private pediatric hospital in Dhaka with a diagnosis of pneumonia in November 2012. Results: We enrolled 80 children during the study period. Among them, 28 (35.4%) were underweight, 14 (17.7%) were moderately underweight, and 13 (16.5%) were severely underweight. On the basis of WHO classification (2005), 43 children (54%) had severe pneumonia and 37 (46%) had very severe pneumonia, as diagnosed by the research physician. Among the prescribed antibiotics in the hospital, parenteral ceftriaxone was the most common 40 (50%), followed by cefotaxime plus amikacin 14 (17.5%), cefuroxime 7 (8.8%), ceftazidime plus amikacin 6 (7.5%), ceftriaxone plus amikacin 3 (3.8%), meropenem 2 (2.5%), cefepime 2 (2.5%), and cefotaxime 2 (2.5%). Conclusion: Despite the WHO pneumonia treatment strategy, the inappropriate use of higher-generation cephalosporin and carbapenem was high in the study hospital. The results underscore the noncompliance with the WHO guidelines of antibiotic use and the importance of enforcing regulatory policy of the rational use of antibiotics for treating hospitalized children with pneumonia. Following these guidelines may help prevent increased antimicrobial resistance.