A review on transdermal delivery of vaccines
AuthorHaque, A.K.M. Salman
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For therapeutic responses against various diseases especiallythose are infectious in nature and also malignant such as cancer; vaccineinduces cellular and humoral immune responses endowed with prophylactic measures by both structurally and physiologically, whichprovides front-line defense and opposes various environmental assaults to protect the skin which is an important part of the immune system.The delivery of water soluble compounds such as peptides, proteins and vaccines,transdermal route overcome the barrier properties of stratum corneum of the skin. The capillaries, lymphatic,blood and interstitial fluid within the dermis and epidermis where the dermis is the major site of fluid exchange in between the both the dermis and epidermis .So immunization through transdermal route is more effective to achieve therapeutic drug level besides sustained release of drug can also be achieved to have a prolonged action of drug delivery. In this review summarizes the different delivery strategies in order to improve thedelivery of transdermal vaccines along with the carrier systems and the adjuvants which can be used to overcome these confronts and thereby enhance the transdermal vaccination or delivery.Dendritic cells which is an essential component of the immune system and induces a stronger immune response for the transdermal route of delivery by processing microbial antigens which migrate into lymphatic capillaries to lymph nodes.Immunogenic materials are being protected during the delivery and facilitate specific target oriented delivery system along with incorporation of various types of adjuvant materials.Moreover transdermal patches may also improve competitiveness in a large market segment of which known examples are nitroglycerin patches in the field of cardiovascular, it was favorably introduced for more than 3o years within the market of nitrate and latest introduction of rivastigmine patches in the indication of Alzeheimer and dopamine patchesParkinson disease and restless leg syndrome which are acted as a agonist by the indication.(B. Boroojerdi; H.M. Wolff et al.2010).Besides trandsermal vaccination has developed vaccines like-hepatitis B(Deng et al,2011), Foot and Mouth disease vaccines(Smartvet,2012),Dendritic antitumor vaccines(Tendeelo et al,2001) which is yet todeveloped.However, transdermal system supports lifecycle management of approved drugs by empowering the patientsituation.