Glymphatic system: a pathway for managing endogenous metabolites in CNS
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Glymphatic pathway is one of the recent discoveries of neuro pharmacology which is a brainwide paravascular system to exchange cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid. This system is associated with the clearance of soluble proteins and metabolic neurotoxic waste products from the brain. Along with the elimination of metabolic waste products from the central nervous system, glymphatic system functions as a facilitator to distribute different compounds such as neuromodulators, amino acids, glucose etc. Recently, it has been observed that suppression of glymphatic system plays a pivotal role in different neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington. Moreover, scientists have explored the association of glymphatic system with sleep which clearly reflects the importance of sleep and the activation of the glymphatic system during sleep. The effect of aging and traumatic brain injury on the functions of glymphatic system has also been discovered and mentioned in recent researches as well. Since the concept of glymphatic system is relatively a new addition in to the science of neuropharmacology, the present study is aimed to review the structural components, mechanism of action, factors related to glymphatic system and the significance of glymphatic system associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Further characterization and research on glymphatic system may open up new doors for the treatment of different neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, the aim of this review paper is to assemble available information regarding glymphatic system and present it in a concise and more constructive manner.